International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts <p><strong> </strong></p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>Country of Publication:</strong> Italy</li> <li><strong>ISSN: </strong>2724-0908</li> <li><strong>Review</strong> <strong>Time: </strong>Four Weeks Approximately</li> <li><strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly</li> <li><strong>Acceptance Rate</strong>: 35%</li> <li>Submissions Received: 128 (2020)</li> <li>Submissions Accepted: 45 (2020)</li> <li><strong>Format</strong>:<strong> </strong>Online </li> <li><strong>Publication Dates:</strong> April, July, October, January</li> <li><strong>Scope: </strong>Linguistics, Language Teaching, Translation, and Culture</li> <li><strong>Open Access: </strong>Yes</li> <li><strong>Indexed: </strong>Yes</li> <li><strong>Policy: </strong>Peer-reviewed/Refereed</li> <li><strong>Publisher:</strong>Tawasul International Centre for Publishing, Research and Dialogue</li> <li><strong>E-mail: </strong>editor@ijlts.org</li> </ul> <p>Manuscripts submitted to <strong>IJLTS </strong>go through an internal review and if they meet the basic requirements, they are sent out for double blind review from experts in the field, either from the editorial board or identified reviewers. Comments from the external reviewers are sent to the authors and they are notified of the journal’s decision (accept, accept with revisions, reject). This entire review process will take anywhere between 2 - 4 weeks after submission of manuscript. Reviewers can recommend to author/s any related work that is not cited. IJLTS uses a double-blind system for peer review; The identities of both reviewers and authors remain anonymous.</p> <p> </p> Tawasul International en-US International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies 2724-0908 A Linguistic Investigation of Competency in Tense Categories among Omani EFL Students https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/393 <p>This study investigates the competency levels in tense categories among Omani EFL students at the University of Technology and Applied Sciences-Salalah. The sample included 120 students: 30 students from each level, covering the four levels of the General Foundation Program (GFP). A quantitative research approach was employed, whereby descriptive statistics and t-tests were carried out. It was revealed that the level of competency for levels one and two in tense categories is low. The t-value for the total score of level one is (6.83, P&lt; 0.05) with a real mean (5.96) which is significant at a level of 0.05. As for students in level two, they have a total score (3.27, P&lt; 0.05) with a real mean (7.40) which is significant at a level of 0.5. On the other hand, the level of competency for level three students is at a moderate point. The t-value for the total score (0.45, P &gt;0.01) is not significant compared to the real mean (8.80). Unlike all other foundation (GFP) levels, level four students obtained the highest level of competency in tense categories with a t-value (4.96, P&lt; 0.05) which is significant at the level of 0.5, and the real mean (12.03) is higher than the assumed mean (9). Furthermore, the t-test values are not significant (P &gt;0.05), thereby confirming that no significant difference exists in precision in the level of competency in tense categories among male and female students. Finally, the future tense category proved to be the most challenging one.</p> Badri Abdulhakim Mudhsh Nayef Jomaa Yasir Al-Yafaei Rais Attamimi Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 1 14 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.393 Implementing project-based learning in Moroccan classrooms https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/402 <p>English language teaching (ELT) underwent significant changes during the 1970s and 1980s. New educational approaches and practices emerged, shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Among these methods is project-based learning (PBL), which has gradually gained popularity in many ELT settings. The incorporation of the PBL approach in the educational system has revealed its positive effect on boosting learners’ skills and learning outcomes. Nevertheless, discussions with ELT practitioners and researchers in Morocco have revealed three key facts regarding PBL in the Moroccan context. First, it is noticed that such a method has not been adequately used in Moroccan classrooms, especially at the university level. Second, the implementation of PBL in Morocco has often been based on misconceptions regarding the fundamental nature of project-based learning. Third, the research exploring PBL in relation to language skills has been rather limited in comparison with studies that have investigated the role of PBL in promoting soft skills and 21<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;century skills. The rationale behind the present paper is therefore to promote the effective implementation of PBL in Moroccan EFL classrooms. It aims to achieve this by highlighting the essential elements for successful implementation, addressing misconceptions, and exploring the impact of PBL on learners' language skills. Moreover, this paper also discusses potential challenges that may impede the successful implementation of PBL and suggests strategies to overcome them. By clarifying misconceptions and providing guidance, this paper seeks to foster a favorable learning environment in Moroccan EFL classrooms.</p> Rachida Moussaoui Reddad Erguig Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 15 27 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.402 Difficulties, Factors, and Coping Mechanisms of Primary Grade Teachers in Teaching Reading Using Modular Distance Learning https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/408 <p><em>This study aimed to explore and analyze the difficulties in teaching beginning reading using modular distance learning, its contributing factors, and the coping mechanisms to tackle the difficulties. The qualitative-descriptive design was employed in identifying and describing the variables of the study. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were utilized to gather the primary data needed in addition to observation reports. Deductive thematic analysis was also employed to categorize and sub-categorize the findings into themes. The findings revealed that teachers have difficulties in addressing reading and in assessing, monitoring, and validating pupils' performance using modules, and in the construction and distribution of modules. Factors that led to these difficulties include pupils’ lack of cognitive understanding and independent learning, along with the unsuitability of modules in reading instruction, parents’ lack of guidance because of insufficient expertise, time constraints, and the absence of communication with teachers. Teachers’ attitude, motivation, and lack of training in modular construction were also factors that contributed to their difficulties. The coping mechanisms employed were module modification, making or sharing videos, restricted face-to-face tutorials, and establishing interaction with other stakeholders. </em></p> Juhairah Alauya Johara Alangca-Azis Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 28 47 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.408 The Phonetic Realization of Obstruent Clusters in Najdi Arabic: An Exploratory Study https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/409 <p><em>This study provides an acoustic analysis of the realization of the surface word-initial obstruent clusters that resulted from the deletion of short vowels in Najdi Arabic. While </em><em>past studies discussed the syllable structure of Najdi Arabic and affirmed the permissibility of initial consonant clusters, most of these studies lack acoustic analyses that attest the occurrence of initial consonant clusters and left much uncertainty about the allowed and disallowed segments in the clusters. The aim of the present research is to address this gap in the literature by conducting an acoustic analysis that examined </em><em>the types and patterns of the allowed obstruent clusters in the Najdi Arabic dialect. Two methods were implemented to collect the data: informal interview and a reading task. The stimuli represented the four types of obstruent clusters: fricative-fricative, fricative-plosive, plosive-fricative, and plosive-plosive. Fourteen native Najdi Arabic speakers (7 males, 7 females) were recruited. The findings of this study affirm the presence of the four types of the obstruent clusters and provide a description of their patterns in Najdi Arabic. </em><em>This finding enhances our understanding of the phonology of Najdi Arabic and contributes to the wide-ranging context of Arabic dialectology with regards to phonotactics and syllable structure. </em></p> Rana Alsabhan Jane Setter Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 48 68 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.409 Exploring Nuances in American Republican Discourse: A SFL-driven Basic Content Analysis of G. Bush and D. Trump as Case Studies https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/405 <p><em>This exploratory study uses a Functional-Semantic approach to language with the aim to foreground the contrasting ideological, discursive, thematic and political discourse features that mark D. Trump and George Bush's nationalistic discourse. Using a Nvivo12-facilitated CDA-oriented Basic Content Analysis (BCA), I examine 5 purposively sampled public addresses delivered by George W. Bush and Donald Trump (5 for each case) during their respective presidencies. The key findings of this lexicometric analysis disclosed subtle variations and significant intertextual connections in these two nationalistic discourse genre chains. Both discourse makers deployed certain socio-cognitive elements consistent with their discursive purposes and addressee mental models. George Bush’s sample attests to a ‘conservative Jeffersonian internationalist discourse’ that is marked by a call for Americans to think of themselves as one people, whose members are equal, rather than being in conflict with an out-group America-internally. Indeed, Donald Trump's discourse subscribes to hardline Jacksonian stream, introducing an ideological and political nationalism, characterized by heightened polarization, conspiracy theories and group essentialization. This research has broader implications for political communication, informing discussions on how language shapes political ideologies and societies. The revealed intertextual links support previous research on the intertextuality and ideological encoding of nationalistic narratives in American political discourse.</em></p> MOUHCINE CHOUIA BANI KOUMACHI Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 69 94 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.405 A A Transitivity Analysis of English Newspapers Headlines on the Ukraine-Russia War: A Study with Critical Discourse Analysis and Systematic Functional Linguistics’ Perspective https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/397 <p>Newspaper is the representative of what happens in society. It uses different writing strategies. The language of the newspaper emerged from beliefs, speech and writing practices (Joseph, 2006). There are different lexical, grammatical, and discursive strategies that the author uses in his article or headline. This study aims to explore the lexical and discursive choices that are used in newspaper headlines depicting the Ukraine-Russia war. It uses a descriptive research method and Halliday’s transitivity system as a research instrument. The researcher investigated how language features are used to create an emotional impact and influence the common public. The study highlights the hidden ideologies that are the basis of the lexical choices or different representations of the same event. The results show that "<em>Stars and Strips"</em>, a German newspaper, shows Vladimir Putin as a leader of Russia who has authority and a great impact on the people of Russia but “<em>The New York Post</em>” and “<em>The Guardian</em>” depict him as a murderer who is responsible for this war and attacks Ukraine and kill people violently because of his desire.</p> Hamed Zakizadeh Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 95 113 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.397 Applying an Empirical Approach to the Search for Equivalents in Translating Administrative Terms Used in Civil Status Records https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/391 <p><em>Equivalence is a central concept in translation theory, but it is also a controversial one. According to Catford 1965; Nida and Taber 1969; Toury 1980; Pym 1992, 1995, 2004; and Koller 1995, translation is defined in terms of equivalence relations. While some authors develop a theoretical notion of equivalence, others have an empirical approach. Indeed, Toury (1980) identified an empirical use of the term: equivalence could be a descriptive term, denoting concrete objects in two languages and subject to direct observation. This paper adopts Toury’s conception of equivalence. It aims to discuss how equivalence is achieved in translation. To this end, administrative terms found in civil status records are used as examples to show how the search for equivalence is carried out in a real-life situation. Even though administrative divisions’ names may appear normal on birth certificates, death certificates, marriage certificates, etc., searching for their equivalents in translation may pose problems. One of the difficulties is that administrative divisions differ from country to country. Examples cited in this paper consist of administrative terms used in Benin, Nigeria, Ghana, and Senegal. This research takes an empirical approach. Indeed, the search for equivalents in the target language (i.e. English or French) is based on real-life experience and observable data. The findings reveal that source language and target language items rarely have ‘the same meaning’ in the linguistic sense; but can function in the same situation. The contextual meaning of a term is more important in this discussion than the linguistic sense. Equivalence is not only a theoretical notion but also an empirical concept.</em></p> <p> </p> Servais Martial Akpaca Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 114 130 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.391 Investigating EFL Moroccan University Students’ Level of Intercultural Communication Competence: School of Arts and Humanities Meknes, Morocco. https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/411 <p><em>The purpose of the present study was to investigate EFL Moroccan university students’</em><em> level of intercultural communication competence (ICC), which is the ability to communicate effectively across cultural interactions, given its importance in the English language teaching (ELT) field especially for graduates. In order to do so, a multi-sectioned questionnaire based on the three-level ICC model proposed by Byram (1997) was administered to a total of 30 conveniently selected EFL Moroccan university students, belonging to the sixth semester of the English major, in Moulay Smail University of Arts and Human Sciences. The questionnaire was designed to tackle students’ ICC knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding their culture as well as other cultures all in hopes to discover their level of ICC and their readiness to utilize it successfully after graduation. The results revealed that the students possess enough knowledge of their culture as well as the surface-level and deep-level elements of other cultures. Moreover, the respondents displayed positive attitudes of acceptance, openness, appreciation, and respect showing no sign of ethnocentrism or negativity. The students also proved to be skillful when it comes to carrying out intercultural interactions with people from other cultures successfully.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amal Kerouad Hicham Fatmi Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2024-01-01 2024-01-01 5 1 131 149 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.411 Investigating EFL Students' Engagement in Online English Classes at Taif University https://ijlts.org/index.php/ijlts/article/view/333 <p><em>Academic success is strongly correlated with Student engagement. In Saudi Arabia, curriculum development has been undertaken to improve English as a foreign language (EFL) course; however, EFL students still have trouble cooperating, especially in online classes. The study aims to (1) investigate students' engagement in online courses and (2) provide online students' perspectives on the value of the student engagement strategies for enhancing learning. The Student Course Engagement Questionnaire (SCEQ) and the Online Engagement Strategies Questionnaire (OESQ) were used as reliable measurements; a survey was conducted with 197 EFL students studying Online English language courses. The findings demonstrate that both male and female EFL students are quite engaged and some engagement strategies that were rated most important based on students' perceptions. The study will help generate recommendations to improve EFL practices and develop online EFL classes.</em></p> Malak AlHuthayfi Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Linguistics and Translation Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 5 1 150 174 10.36892/ijlts.v5i1.333